Sub-arc welding is utilized in various sectors including heavy industrial applications. This technique consists of a welding head that continuously feeds filler metal and a granular flux, such as silica or lime, into the welding zone. The filler material is often referred to as an electrode or wire. The term “sub” is short for submerged, which describes the arc that is buried under the flux during welding operations to protect the arc and the weld. When operations begin, the wire and flux are fed through a torch that is positioned along the weld joint. The arc heat melts some of the wire, flux, and metal pieces that are being joined together, forming a pool of molten material. Once melted, the flux becomes a conductor between the electrode and the metal being welded together, enabling a current path. Any excess flux is called slag and is removed once the weld is completed.